A major limiting issue of bacterial ghost technology involves the stable maintenance of Phix174 lysis gene E expression. Unwanted leaky expression of gene E in the absence of induction temperature results in reduced biomass production of host bacterium, consequently leading to the lower yield of bacterial ghost. To mitigate the leaky expression status of lysis gene E, we utilized a novel E-lysis system in which gene E is located between sense λpR promoter with a CI857 regulator and antisense ParaBAD promoter with the AraC regulator. In the presence of l-arabinose at 28 C, unwanted transcription of lysis gene E from λpR promoter is repressed by a simultaneous transcription event from ParaBAD promoter by means of anti-sense RNA-mediated inhibition. Tight repression of lysis gene E in the absence of induction temperature resulted in higher bacterial cell number in culture suspension and, consequently, higher production of Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) ghost biomass. The safety and protective efficacy of the SG ghost vaccine were further examined in chickens. All of the immunized chickens showed significantly higher mucosal and systemic antibody responses accompanied by a potent antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response. Vaccination of chickens with SG ghost preparation offered efficient protection against wild-type SG challenge.
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Vol. 59 • No. 2