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11 February 2015 Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Waterfowl in Missouri, USA, 2005–2013
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Missouri, United States, is located within the Mississippi Migratory Bird Flyway where wild waterfowl stop to feed and rest during migration and, weather permitting, to overwinter. Historically, Missouri has experienced sporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in poultry and commercial swine. The introduction of IAVs from wild, migratory waterfowl is one possible source for the IAV, IAV genomic segments, or both involved in these outbreaks in key agricultural species. During 2005 through 2013, 3984 cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl in Missouri as part of an active IAV surveillance effort. Twenty-four avian species were represented in the sample population and 108 (2.7%) of the samples tested positive for IAV recovery. These IAV isolates represented 12 HA and nine NA subtypes and at least 27 distinct HA–NA combinations. An H14 IAV isolate recovered in Missouri during the sample period provided evidence for further establishment of the H14 subtype in North American wild waterfowl and gave proof that the previously rare subtype is more genetically diverse than previously detected. The present surveillance effort also produced IAV isolates that were genomically linked to the highly pathogenic H7N3 IAV strain that emerged in 2012 and caused severe disease in Mexico's domestic poultry. The presence of antigenically diverse IAV's circulating in wild waterfowl in the vicinity of commercial poultry and swine, along with the association of several wild-bird–lineage IAV genomic segments in viruses infecting poultry in North America, justifies continued attention to biosecurity efforts in food animal production systems and ongoing active IAV surveillance in wild birds.

© 2015 American Association of Avian Pathologists
Andrew S. Bowman, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Rose Massengill, Joseph Baker, Jeffrey D. Workman, and Richard D. Slemons "Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Waterfowl in Missouri, USA, 2005–2013," Avian Diseases 59(2), 303-308, (11 February 2015).
Received: 15 December 2014; Accepted: 1 January 2015; Published: 11 February 2015

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