The brown Lygodium defoliating moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis Warren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was released beginning in 2008 to control Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae). The moth readily established in Jonathan Dickinson State Park, but at other sites populations remained at low densities or were locally extirpated. In 2012 and 2013, we recovered N. conspurcatalis populations at all original release sites except Everglades National Park and those treated with herbicide. The original releases of 4,000 or more individuals per site were entirely successful, pointing to a strategy that focuses on numbers at this target level or beyond for future releases in Florida.
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Vol. 97 • No. 2