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1 December 2015 Local Prevalence and Transmission of Avian Malaria in the Alakai Plateau of Kauai, Hawaii, U.S.A.
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Abstract

Avian malaria is among the most important threats to native Hawaiian forest birds. It is caused by the parasite Plasmodium relictum and is transmitted by the introduced mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Temperature increases and precipitation declines due to climate change over the last decade may be responsible for the observed recent expansion in the range and prevalence of avian malaria on the Alakai Plateau, Kauai Island. To examine the hypothesis that conditions are now favorable for transmission of malaria on the Plateau, mosquitoes were sampled with CO2 and Reiter oviposition traps at three sites (Kawaikoi, Halepa'akai, and Koke'e) on several occasions between October, 2013 and April, 2014. P. relictum infection was assessed by PCR or dissection under a microscope. We also surveyed mosquito larvae along Halepa'akai and Kawaikoi streams. We observed that Cx. quinquefasciatus is well established on the Alakai Plateau, as mosquitoes were caught on all field trips, except in April at Halepa'akai, and larvae were found throughout the year. We observed differences in adult abundance among sites and microhabitats (stream vs ridge lines).

Anouk Glad and Lisa H. Crampton "Local Prevalence and Transmission of Avian Malaria in the Alakai Plateau of Kauai, Hawaii, U.S.A.," Journal of Vector Ecology 40(2), 221-229, (1 December 2015). https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12157
Received: 27 October 2014; Accepted: 1 March 2015; Published: 1 December 2015
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