Traces of predation by drilling gastropods and peeling crabs provide important insights about predator-prey interaction in ecological as well as evolutionary times. Predation on turritelline gastropods, in this context, has been frequently discussed in literature. Here, we have estimated the intensity of predation (both drilling and peeling) on Recent turritelline gastropods from the Indian subcontinent, which has been underrepresented in previous studies. Our samples include our own collections from several Indian coasts as well as a vast collection which was locked in the archive of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) in Kolkata for the past 150 years. It includes samples from different parts of the Indian subcontinent as well as from many other countries. Drilling frequency (DF) of Indian turritelline species is low compared to average values of global data. We suggest that this is mainly because most of the Indian species are larger (> 4 cm) than species living elsewhere. Smaller species show higher DF and lower values of peeling frequency. Size selectivity of drill holes shows both intra- and interspecific variation. Shell thickness and ornamentation appear to be antipredatory in nature.
We have compared our results with a revised global database. Distribution of intensity of predation shows latitudinal variation where both drilling and peeling frequencies increase towards the tropics.