Chloroplast reorientations within mesophyll cells are among the most rapid physiological responses of higher plants to blue light. At light intensities below the saturation point of photosynthesis, chloroplasts move to the cell walls perpendicular to the direction of light and maximize light absorption (low–fluence rate response [LFR]). At light intensities above the saturation point of photosynthesis, chloroplasts redistribute to cell walls parallel to the direction of light (high–fluence rate response [HFR]). The actin-based mechanism is responsible for the light-induced chloroplast movements. We have found that an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3-kinases, wortmannin, potently and irreversibly inhibited LFR and HFR chloroplast responses to blue light in Lemna trisulca L. mesophyll cells. Microscopic observations and photometric measurement indicated that 100 nM wortmannin specifically inhibited LFR in Lemna, whereas HFR displayed no sensitivity to the inhibitor at this concentration. A complete inhibition of the HFR could be obtained by 1 μM wortmannin. These data indicate that LFR is more sensitive to wortmannin than HFR and suggest that these two responses may be under the control of different cellular mechanisms. Our results suggest that phosphoinositide kinases and other phosphoinositide cycle enzymes may play a role in the transduction of the light signal to the actin cytoskeleton in Lemna as factors specifying the direction of chloroplast movements. A hypothetical model assuming three signaling pathways regulating light-induced chloroplast reorientations in mesophyll cells is proposed.
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Vol. 79 • No. 4