We revealed that in ATX-S10·Na(II)(13,17-bis (1-carboxypropionyl) carbamoylethyl-8-etheny-2-hydroxy-3-hydroxyiminoethylidene-2,7,12,18-tetraethyl porphyrin sodium)–mediated photodynamic therapy using 667 nm nanosecond-pulsed light excitation at a peak intensity of 2.0 MW/cm2, phototoxicity increased with decreasing pulse repetition rate in the range of 5–30 Hz for A549 cell cultures. To examine the relation between the reaction mechanism and measured phototoxicity, we carefully measured the kinetics of photochemical oxygen consumption and photobleaching during irradiation of ATX-S10·Na(II)–sensitized A549 monolayer cultures. Measurements of oxygen consumption with a microelectrode, which was performed just above the cells, showed that there was no significant difference between the magnitudes of decrease in oxygen at the three repetition rates at the same cumulative fluence. Loss of ATX-S10·Na(II) fluorescence intensity also exhibited little repetition rate dependence when compared at the same cumulative fluence. We investigated the correlation between oxygen consumption and photobleaching during irradiation and obtained “fluorescence-oxygen diagrams.” The diagrams showed dynamic changes between oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent photobleaching at the higher repetition rates of 10 and 30 Hz, whereas such change was not clearly seen over the whole irradiation time at 5 Hz. These results suggest that the reduced phototoxicity at high repetition rates might be due to an oxygen-independent reaction. We presumed that the change in the reaction mechanism was associated with the local concentrations of the photosensitizer and oxygen in cells during irradiation.
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Vol. 80 • No. 2