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1 May 2005 Effects of Short- and Long-term Ultraviolet B Irradiation on the Immune System of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
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Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were repeatedly exposed to 0, 60, 120 and 240 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation three times in 1 week (short-term exposure) or 12 times in 4 weeks (long-term exposure). The effect of UVB on the functioning of the carp immune system was studied on day 2 after the final irradiation. After short-term UVB exposure, the whole-blood respiratory burst and cytotoxic activity were markedly enhanced, with parallel responses in both the number of circulating granulocytes and in the plasma cortisol concentration of the fish. These changes were not detectable after long-term exposure. The respiratory burst by head kidney granulocytes was suppressed dose dependently after both exposures, but cytotoxic activity was not affected. Exposure to UVB also modulated lymphocyte functions: nonstimulated and PHA-stimulated proliferation of head kidney lymphocytes in vitro was enhanced by both short-term and long-term exposure. LPS-stimulated proliferation was not affected by exposure nor was the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the head kidney. In long-term exposure, the highest dose reduced the level of plasma IgM. This study indicates that UVB irradiation induces immunomodulation in the blood and head kidney of the carp and that the effects of short- and long-term exposure differ from each other. The results emphasize the potentially harmful impact of increased solar UVB radiation on fish immune functions.

S. Eveliina Markkula, Harri M. Salo, Anu K. Immonen, and E. Ilmari Jokinen "Effects of Short- and Long-term Ultraviolet B Irradiation on the Immune System of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)," Photochemistry and Photobiology 81(3), 595-602, (1 May 2005).
Received: 13 July 2004; Accepted: 1 March 2005; Published: 1 May 2005

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