Singlet oxygen (1O2) is unique amongst reactive oxygen species formed in cells in that it is an excited state molecule with an inherent upper lifetime of 4 μs in water. Whether the lifetime of 1O2 in cells is shortened by reactions with cellular molecules or reaches the inherent maximum value is still unclear. However, even with the maximum lifetime, the diffusion radius is only ∼220 nm during three lifetimes (∼5% 1O2 remaining), much shorter than cellular dimensions indicating that the primary reactions of 1O2 will be subcellularly localized near the site of 1O2 formation. This fact has raised the question of whether spatially resolved cellular responses to 1O2 occur, i.e. whether responses can be initiated by generation and reaction of 1O2 at a particular subcellular location that would not have been produced by 1O2 generation at other subcellular sites. In this paper, we discuss examples of spatially resolved responses initiated by 1O2 as a function of distance from the site of generation of 1O2. Three levels are recognized, namely, a molecular level where the primary oxidation product directly modifies the behavior of a cell, an organelle level where the initial photo-oxidation products initiate mechanisms that are unique to the organelle and the cellular level where mediators diffuse from their site of formation to the target molecules that initiate the response. These examples indicate that, indeed, spatially resolved responses to 1O2 occur in cells.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 82 • No. 5