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17 April 2019 DNA Damage and Cytokine Production in Non-Target Irradiated Lymphocytes
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Abstract

In advanced radiotherapy, treatment of the tumor with high-intensity modulated fields is balanced with normal tissue sparing. However, the non-target dose delivered to surrounding healthy tissue within the irradiated volume is a potential cause for concern. Whether the effects observed are caused after exposure to out-of-field radiation or bystander effects through neighboring irradiated cells is not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to out-of-field radiation in lymphocyte cell lines and primary blood cells. The role of cellular radiosensitivity in altering bystander responses in out-of-field exposed cells was also investigated. Target cells were positioned in a phantom in the center of the radiation field (in-field dose) and exposed to 2 Gy irradiation. Lymphocyte cell lines (C1, AT3ABR, Jurkat, THP-1, AT2Bi and AT3Bi) and peripheral blood were placed 1 cm away from the radiation field edge (out-of-field dose) and received an average dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy. Double-stranded DNA damage, cell growth and gene expression were measured in the out-of-field cells. Radiosensitive AT3ABR and primary blood cells demonstrated the largest increase in γ-H2AX foci after irradiation. Exposure of normal cells to bystander factors from irradiated radiosensitive cell lines also increased DNA damage. Expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα and TGFβ after addition of bystander factors from radiosensitive cells showed differential effects in normally responding cells, with some evidence of an adaptive response observed. Exposure to out-of-field radiation induces DNA damage and reduces growth in radiosensitive cells. Bystander factors produced by directly irradiated cells in combination with out-of-field exposure may upregulate pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in responding cells of different radiosensitivities, with the potential of affecting the tumor microenvironment. A greater understanding of the radio-biological response in normal cells outside the primary treatment field would assist in radiation treatment planning and in reducing early and late toxicities.

©2019 by Radiation Research Society. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
Jane Bryant, Laura Shields, Christopher Hynes, Orla Howe, Brendan McClean, and Fiona Lyng "DNA Damage and Cytokine Production in Non-Target Irradiated Lymphocytes," Radiation Research 191(6), 545-555, (17 April 2019). https://doi.org/10.1667/RR15165.1
Received: 19 June 2018; Accepted: 12 March 2019; Published: 17 April 2019
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