The effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Campsis radicans seeds were examined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Campsis radicans pods produced numerous, papery, and small seeds (696 seeds/pod; 4 mg/seed). Seeds exhibited dormancy that was relieved (74% germination) after 2 wk of prechilling. Fluctuating temperatures and a 12-h photoperiod were required for maximum germination. Optimum conditions for C. radicans seed germination (74%) were 35/25 C (day/night, 12/12 h) with a 12-h photoperiod. Temperatures below 25/15 C or above 40/30 C were unfavorable for germination. Germination in constant temperatures or in continuous darkness was less than 15%. More than 59% of C. radicans seeds germinated at pH 5 to 9, but at pH 4 or 10 seed germination was totally inhibited. Germination was totally inhibited at osmotic stress higher than −0.2 MPa. Germination was 60% at 40 mM NaCl and 20% at 160 mM NaCl. Emergence was maximum (68%) for seeds that were placed on the soil surface, but no seedlings emerged from a soil depth at 4 cm. About 10% of seeds were still viable even after 20 wk of prechilling. Each pod contained about 700 seeds and each plant produced 20 to 40 pods. These results suggest that the spread potential of C. radicans by seeds would be at least 1,400 to 2,800 seeds plant−1. However, only seeds near the soil surface would be able to germinate.
Nomenclature: Trumpetcreeper; Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau CMIRA.