Pesticide retention by eight inorganic soil amendments, the majority of which are used in turf, was evaluated using a laboratory-based technique with radiolabeled pesticides. Amendments evaluated were derived from various naturally-occurring deposits of zeolites, diatomaceous earths, and fired clays and are intended to provide long-lived, stable, and uniformly sized particles that can contribute favorable water- and nutrient-retention properties to the root zone. Sand, sedge peat, and a Marvyn loamy sand soil (Ap horizon) were included for comparative purposes. Pesticides evaluated included the herbicides imazaquin and oxadiazon and the fungicide/herbicide fenarimol. Pesticide retention was evaluated with a soil solution technique. Amendments evaluated had considerable variation in cation exchange capacity (CEC), effective CEC (ECEC), surface area (SA), and field capacity with lesser variation in particle size distribution and particle density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface texture was variable but frequently rough and porous. Pesticide retention was also variable but generally more than that of sand and frequently equivalent to sedge peat. Only with fenarimol and amendments that had been Ca 2-saturated could retention be correlated with any of the individual physical or chemical parameters that are generally assumed to govern pesticide adsorption, which in this case were CEC and SA. Imazaquin retention by unaltered amendments was correlated only with the products of SA and CEC, and SA and ECEC. Retention of both oxadiazon and fenarimol by unaltered amendments could not be correlated with any individual physical and chemical parameters or products thereof. Pesticide retention by these amendments is probably the cumulative sum of both true adsorption and physical entrapment.
Nomenclature: Imazaquin; oxadiazon; fenarimol, a-(2-chlorophenyl)-a-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol.