Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are chlorophyll-lacking root parasites of many dicotyledonous species and cause severe damage to vegetable and field crops from several botanic families such as Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Compositae, and Umbelliferae. In Oregon, small broomrape has been identified as a parasite of red clover. In Oregon field studies, small broomrape control was excellent when imazamox was applied postemergence to red clover but preemergence to small broomrape. Temperature is one of the main factors that affect broomrape development. The objective of this study was to optimize small broomrape chemical control in red clover based on growing degree days (GDD). The study was conducted in controlled temperature conditions. Red clover plants were grown in soil artificially infested with small broomrape seeds. Imazamox was applied at 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 GDD. There was no injury to red clover from any imazamox treatment at any of the application timings. Small broomrape shoot emergence was reduced where imazamox was applied compared to the untreated control. Early imazamox applications reduced small broomrape biomass more than later applications. Control was greatest when imazamox was applied at 20 g ai ha−1 at 1,000 GDD. This application controlled small broomrape for 800 GDD after initial treatment. However, season-long control would require an additional treatment. This model predicts the optimal timing and rate of imazamox application for small broomrape control in red clover.
Nomenclature: Imazamox; small broomrape, Orobanche minor J. E. Smith ORAMI; red clover, Trifolium pratense L. TRFPR.