Hydrilla is one of the most serious aquatic weed problems in the United States, and fluridone is the only U.S. Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)–approved herbicide that provides relatively long-term systemic control. Recently, hydrilla biotypes with varying levels of fluridone resistance have been documented in Florida. Fluridone-susceptible (S) and several fluridone-resistant (R1 to R5) hydrilla biotypes varying in resistance levels were maintained in 950-L tanks under ambient sunlight and day-length conditions. To correlate varying levels of fluridone resistance to ploidy in hydrilla, flow cytometric analysis was performed. Differential ploidy levels (diploid, 2n = 2x = 16; triploid, 2n = 3x = 24; and tetraploid, 2n = 4x = 32) were reported among different hydrilla biotypes, plants within each biotype, and within shoot tissues of the same plant. Triploid plants were predominant in all biotypes. Diploid plants were observed in all hydrilla biotypes except the susceptible hydrilla (S). Plants with tetraploidy were rare within biotypes. The diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants had nuclear DNA contents of 2.43 to 2.73 pg, 3.44 to 3.71 pg, and 4.64 to 4.90 pg, respectively, and no differences were observed among plants with same ploidy for nuclear DNA content in different hydrilla biotypes. Endoreduplication patterns were observed in diploid plants of R1 and R3 biotypes. However, no plant with higher ploidy levels (triploid or tetraploid) in any hydrilla biotypes showed endoreduplication.
Nomenclature: Fluridone; hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle HYLLI.