Buffalobur is a noxious and invasive weed species native to North America. The influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of buffalobur were evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of buffalobur seeds occurred at temperatures ranging from 12.5 to 45 C, with optimum germination attained between 25 and 35 C. Buffalobur seeds germinated equally well under both a 14-h photoperiod and continuous darkness; however, prolonged light exposure (≥ 16 h) significantly inhibited the seed germination. Buffalobur seed is rather tolerant to low water potential and high salt stress, as germination was 28 and 52% at osmotic potentials of −1.1 MPa and salinity level of 160 mM, respectively. Medium pH has no significant effect on seed germination; germination was greater than 95% over a broad pH range from 3 to 10. Seedling emergence was higher (85%) for seeds buried at a soil depth of 2 cm than for those placed on the soil surface (32%), but no seedlings emerged when burial depth reached 8 cm. Knowledge of germination biology of buffalobur obtained in this study will be useful in predicting the potential distribution area and developing effective management strategies for this species.
Nomenclature: Buffalobur, Solanum rostratum Dunal SOLCU.