The influence of environmental factors on germination and emergence of aryloxyphenoxy propanoate herbicide-resistant (AR) and -susceptible (AS) Asia Minor bluegrass were studied in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Seeds were collected from AR and AS plants cultivated in separate greenhouses under the same environmental conditions. The results revealed that optimum temperatures for the germination of AS biotype were 10 to 25 C or alternating temperature of 15/5 to 30/20 C and light was not necessary. However, maximum germination occurred at 10 C or 15/5 C, and no germination occurred above 15 C or 25/15 C for the AR biotype. The AS Asia Minor bluegrass was consistently more tolerant to environmental stress, as evidenced by their greater germination at same pH value, osmotic potential, and NaCl concentration at 15/5 C compared to the AR biotype. Higher emergence rates were obtained when seeds were sown on the surface of soil for both biotypes. Emergence percentage of the AR biotype was below 14% when buried, whereas the AS biotype had 20% emergence at 2.5 cm burial depth. It is concluded that several environmental factors affect the germination of Asia Minor bluegrass, and the AS biotype showed higher germination percentage and a wider adaptive range under same treatments compared with the AR biotype. Due to the reduced emergence at depth, deep tillage could be an effective management to reduce AR Asia Minor bluegrass infestation in the following crop.
Nomenclature: Asia Minor bluegrass, Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.