Greenhouse experiments were conducted to quantify resistance levels to the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides mesotrione (MES) and isoxaflutole (IFT) in NEB (Nebraska HPPD- and atrazine-resistant) and SIR (Stanford, IL, HPPD- and atrazineresistant) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] populations. These populations differ in their field-use histories and resistance levels to MES. Foliar growth responses were compared with ACR (HPPD sensitive; metabolic atrazine-resistant) and SEN (sensitive to HPPD and photosystem II [PSII] inhibitors). A greenhouse dose–response study was conducted with each herbicide at two POST timings: early (EPOST) (5 cm; 4 to 5 true leaves) and POST (10 cm; 8 to 9 true leaves). At the EPOST timing, SIR was 10-fold resistant to IFT and 32-fold resistant to MES, while NEB was 4-fold resistant to IFT and 7-fold resistant to MES when compared with ACR. At the POST timing, SIR was 17-fold resistant to IFT and 21-fold resistant to MES, while NEB was 3-fold resistant to IFT and 7-fold resistant to MES when compared with ACR. Results overall indicated greater fold-resistance levels to MES relative to IFT at each timing. However, POST treatments to SIR showed contrasting effects on resistance levels relative to EPOST. To investigate potential management strategies for resistant A. tuberculatus populations, a POST interaction study was conducted using combinations of metribuzin and either IFT or MES. A metribuzin rate (191 g ai ha-1) causing an approximately 20% biomass reduction was chosen for interaction studies and combined with varying rates of either IFT or MES. Results indicated 52.5 g ai ha-1 of MES combined with metribuzin displayed a synergistic effect on biomass reduction in SIR. However, other combinations of either MES or IFT and metribuzin resulted in additive effects on biomass reduction in both HPPD-resistant populations. These results provide insights into the joint activity between HPPD and PSII inhibitors for controlling metabolism-based, multiple herbicide–resistant A. tuberculatus.
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Vol. 66 • No. 5