We examined abundance and flight periodicity of 3 predators of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Trogositidae), Enoclerus sphegeus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), and E. lecontei (Wolcott) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), across an elevational gradient of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forests in north central Arizona. Predator populations were estimated at 10 sites in each of 3 elevation bands (low: 1600–1736 m; mid: 2058–2230 m; high: 2505–2651 m) for 3 years (2004–2006) using pheromone-baited funnel traps targeting 3 primary bark beetle species. We also investigated how predator abundance and flight seasonality related to those of 5 bark beetle species: lps pini (Say), I. lecontei Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. brevicomis LeConte, and D. adjunctus Blandford. Temnochila chlorodia was most abundant in the low- and mid-elevation bands, whereas E. sphegeus was most abundant in the high-elevation band. Enoclerus lecontei showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance. Within each elevation band, changes in annual abundance of pooled predator species tracked shifts in abundance of pooled bark beetle species. In general, predator flight initiation coincided with or closely followed bark beetle flight initiation in the spring, but predator flight terminated before flight activity ended for most bark beetle species in the fall. In addition, the ratio of prey to predators was lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. This suggests that all bark beetle species examined may be provided temporal escape from their predators in the fall. For all 3 predator species, the pheromone-baited trap targeting D. brevicomis was less attractive than the pheromone-baited traps targeting I. pini and I. lecontei.
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Vol. 69 • No. 3