Karyotype of a Japanese small salamander, Hynobius katoi, was first described. All individuals examined had 2n=58 chromosomes, consisting of nine pairs of biarmed macrochromosomes, four pairs of biarmed medium-sized chromosomes, six pairs of biarmed microchromosomes, and 10 pairs of uniarmed microchromosomes, although distinction of the second and the third groups of chromosome pairs was not clear. All pairs appeared homologous and no sexual dimorphism was found. Possession of 2n=58 chromosomes in H. katoi strongly suggests its lotic-breeding habits as was expected from the number and size of eggs and adult morphology. When compared morphology of chromosomes among lotic-breeders with 2n=58 chromosomes, metacentric nature of No. 10 seems to characterize the karyotype of H. katoi.
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