Little is known about the spatial ecology and ranging behaviour of vultures in Europe. In this paper we used GPS satellite telemetry to assess home-ranges of eight non-breeding Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Spain, trying to answer the main questions on when (i.e. the time of the day), how far (i.e. hourly and daily distances) and where vultures range (i.e. home-range size). Results indicated that vultures ranged extensively mainly in areas where traditional stock-raising practices and pasturing were still common, also including some vulture restaurants, which were visited occasionally. Eurasian Griffon Vultures concentrated their hourly and daily movements in the middle of the day, when the availability of thermal updrafts was higher, favouring foraging activities. The overall foraging range, calculated as Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) (7419 km2), or as 95% and 50% kernel contours (4078 km2 and 489 km2, respectively), was higher than those reported in previous studies. The precise knowledge of the ranging behaviour and spatial parameters is particularly important for the conservation of scavenger species inhabiting human-dominated areas where human activities may jeopardize vulture populations in the long term.
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