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31 December 2021 Developments and Prospects for Biological Control of Prosopis (Leguminosae) in South Africa
C.A. Kleinjan, J.H. Hoffmann, F. Heystek, P. Ivey, Y. Kistensamy
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South Africa was the first country to deploy biological control (biocontrol) against invasive Prosopis populations. Developments in this regard have been ongoing, and have been reviewed, at approximately 10-year intervals, since 1991. This review spans the period 2011-2020, a timespan globally characterised by increased awareness of the impacts of invasive Prosopis populations, and recognition of the need for improved management. Concerted international collaboration has resulted in enhanced clarity on phylogenetic relationships within the Leguminosae and the phylogenetic placement of Prosopis. These advances have improved the framework for interpreting the host range of potential agents and for evaluating risk. At the outset of the biocontrol programme, in the 1980s, only agents that consumed mature seeds were considered. The intention was to reduce the invasiveness of Prosopis while simultaneously retaining it as a usable resource. The programme was subsequently expanded to investigate agents that prevent pod set or maturation of seed. More recently, potential agents that damage the vegetative growth of the plants have been included in response to recognition in South Africa, that there is no other route to successful management of Prosopis. There is a wealth of largely unexplored potential in this regard.

© Entomological Society of Southern Africa
C.A. Kleinjan, J.H. Hoffmann, F. Heystek, P. Ivey, and Y. Kistensamy "Developments and Prospects for Biological Control of Prosopis (Leguminosae) in South Africa," African Entomology 29(3), 859-874, (31 December 2021).
Received: 12 December 2020; Accepted: 11 August 2021; Published: 31 December 2021

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Algarobius prosopis
Asphondylia prosopidis
Coelocephalapion gandolfoi
Evippe sp
Oncideres rhodosticta
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