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1 June 2011 Microbial Contamination of Groundwater at Small Community Water Supplies in Finland
Tarja Pitkänen, Päivi Karinen, Ilkka T. Miettinen, Heidi Lettojärvi, Annika Heikkilä, Reetta Maunula, Vesa Aula, Henry Kuronen, Asko Vepsäläinen, Liina-Lotta Nousiainen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Helvi Heinonen-Tanski
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Abstract

The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002–2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied.

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010
Tarja Pitkänen, Päivi Karinen, Ilkka T. Miettinen, Heidi Lettojärvi, Annika Heikkilä, Reetta Maunula, Vesa Aula, Henry Kuronen, Asko Vepsäläinen, Liina-Lotta Nousiainen, Sinikka Pelkonen, and Helvi Heinonen-Tanski "Microbial Contamination of Groundwater at Small Community Water Supplies in Finland," AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 40(4), 377-390, (1 June 2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/S13280-010-0102-8
Received: 2 May 2010; Accepted: 11 October 2010; Published: 1 June 2011
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