G. DAVID JOHNSON, COLIN PATTERSON
American Museum Novitates 2001 (3312), 1-24, (30 January 2001) https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0082(2001)312<0001:TISOAF>2.0.CO;2
This paper is a response to Gemballa and Britz (1998), who presented a new interpretation of the intermuscular bones of acanthomorphs, homologizing them with the epicentrals of lower teleosts. We argue that their identification of epineural ligaments above the intermuscular bones in many acanthomorphs is mistaken; the structures in question are fanlike arrays of collagen fibers, not true intermuscular ligaments. We show also that undisputed epineural intermusculars penetrate or enter the horizontal septum in lower acanthomorphs (Velifer, Polymixia, beryciforms), and reiterate arguments for regarding the single series of intermusculars in most acanthomorphs as epineurals, secondarily displaced into the horizontal septum.