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Aphelonotus Uhler is revised with the recognition of 14 species, six of them described as new: A, alvarengai, A. elongatus, A. minutus, A. paramedius, A. taino, and A. xenos. Aphelonotus brevirostris Carayon and Villiers is treated as a junior synonym of A. fraterculus Harris. Color habitus images and illustrations of the male parameres are provided for all species; morphology for the adult female of A. major is documented through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Measurements of male and female specimens are presented and analyzed, documenting a strong correlation between total length and the length of the proximal portion of the antennal pedicel and the consequent utility of either of these measurements in species discrimination. Nymphs are described for the first time for the genus, for the species A. fraterculus, A. major, and A. xenos; their morphology is documented by SEM and color images. Distributional maps show a pattern of occurrence restricted primarily to the New World tropics, including Cuba, with a single species known from the Congo Basin and East Africa. All specimens were provided with unique specimen identifiers and their associated data are now available on the Internet