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Twenty-five species in ten cetrarioid lichen genera belonging to the family Parmeliaceae are reported for the lichen flora of NE China. Keys to the genera and species as well as short descriptions are given. Cetrelia japonica, Tuckermannopsis americana and T. ulophylloides are reported as new to China. Seven additional species are new to NE China. Nephromopsis endocrocea is excluded from the lichen flora of China.
Based on extensive field surveys and studies of numerous herbarium collections, a taxonomic revision on the tree ferns (Cyatheaceae) from Hainan Island, South China is made. Some formerly used diagnostic characters are critically reassessed, while others with taxonomic value are introduced for the first time. As a result, two genera and six species are recognized for the island. Alsophila denticulata is a new record for Hainan. Alsophila gigantea var. polynervata and Cyathea hainanensis are reduced to synonymy. A lectotype is designated for Alsophila podophylla. The habitat and geographical distribution of the Hainan tree ferns are briefly discussed. Their distribution patterns indicate affinities either to the fern flora of Malesia, the eastern Himalayas, or southern Japan.
Chromosome numbers for 52 populations representing eight South American species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae) were determined. The numbers 2n = 22 found in S. hassleriana and S. palustris, and 2n = 44 in S. lobelioides are the first records for the species, while those found in S. hyptoides (2n = 22, 44) and S. stricta (2n = 22) constitute new cytotypes for those species. The basic chromosome number X = 11 was confirmed for the New World species. Chromosome numbers indicate the existence of a polyploid series in S. hyptoides with 2n = 22, 44, 66. Moreover, the existence of at least three different ploidy levels, both within and among species, indicates that polyploidy has been one of the mechanisms involved in the evolution of the genus. The geographical distribution of different species and cytotypes are analysed and discussed in the light of their extant morphological variation and taxonomic implications.
A key challenge of conservation management in seminatural grasslands is to find ecologically cost-effective management regimes which will maintain the ecological functionality and biodiversity of a community. We studied changes in the plant functional trait composition and diversity of the flooded meadow in the 6-year field experiment in Soomaa National Park, Estonia. Five management regimes were introduced: traditional (cutting with a scythe and hay removal), mowing (machine cutting and hay removal), mulching (machine cutting without hay removal), spring burning and unmanaged control. Unmanaged and burned plots differed from cut plots due to their higher percentage of grasses and sedges, and of C-strategists, and by lower percentage of trampling- and grazing-tolerant species, erosulate species, and vegetatively mobile guerrilla species. Removal of litter enhanced rosette species and winter-green species. Traditional management increased the compositional variability among plots. Species richness remained almost constant in burned plots, and fluctuated in unmanaged plots, while in all cut plots there was a significant increase in species richness. Within cutting treatments, richness increased relatively more in the plots that were cut by a machine. Results from the 6-year field experiment suggest that mulching is the most cost-effective management regime in floodplain meadows, but only in combination with mowing (cutting with removal of the hay crop) every second or third year, providing the best management practice in the long run.
We report a detailed study of the development and morphology of pollen in four species of the genus Pterocactus (Cactaceae), carried out by using LM and SEM. The anther is tetrasporangiate, its wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, one middle layer and a binucleate secretory tapetum. Microspore tetrads are tetrahedrical and pollen grains are shed at bicellular stage. Pollen grains are pantoporate, with a perforate tectum and supratectate spinules.
Pueraria yunnanensis Franch. has frequently been regarded as a synonym of P. peduncularis (Graham ex Benth.) Benth. After examining many of the types and other specimens, and observing their leaf epidermis under LM and seed coat under SEM, the specific status of P. yunnanensis is reinstated.
Two smut fungi on two different species of Ischaemum are taxonomically assessed based on newly studied collections. Sporisorium austroafricanum M. Pitek is described and illustrated as a new species infecting Ischaemum fasciculatum in South Africa. Among the smut fungi described on Ischaemum, it is similar only to Sporisorium ischaemi-anthephoroides, from which it differs by the macroscopic appearance of sori and by larger sterile cells with thicker walls. Tolyposporium bogoriense originally described as occurring on Panicum sp. in Indonesia (Java) appeared to be on Ischaemum cf. timorense and identical with Sporisorium flagellatum, the latter having priority. The morphology of this species is described and illustrated based on the holotype of T. bogoriense.
A new species, Silene ozyurtii Aksoy & Hamzaoğlu (Caryophyllaceae), is described from the north parts of western Taurus facing central Anatolia, between the Konya and Isparta provinces, in southwest Anatolia, Turkey. The species is compared with morphologically similar taxa in sect. Tunicoideae.
The current taxonomic concept of the Klasea integrifolia group (Asteraceae) is explicated, and the new combinations Klasea integrifolia (Vahl) Greuter subsp. monardii (Dufour) Cantó and Klasea algarbiensis (Cantó) Cantó are proposed. Photographs of the type material are provided.
A new species, Crataegus zarrei Dönmez (Rosaecae) is described and illustrated from Kermansah, western Iran. It is allied to C. azarolus, but distinct among the Eurasian species by having finely dentate leaves, a relative abundance of teeth per leaf lobe, and a small and dark-orange fruit.
Stomatanthes reticulatus M.A. Grossi & J.N. Nakaj., an endemic to Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is described and illustrated. It resembles in appearance S. subcapitatus but differs by the coriaceous leaves and 7-ribbed achenes.
Draba orientalis O. Karabacak & L. Behçet sp. nova (Brassicaceae) from Turkey is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters of the species along with taxonomic notes are given. It is compared with the morphologically similar D. siliquosa, D. lanceolata and D. anatolica.
Clinopodium hakkaricum Dirmenci & Firat (Lamiaceae) sp. nova from Hakkari province, SE Anatolia, Turkey is described and illustrated. It clearly differs from the other Clinopodium taxa in Turkey and adjacent areas. Affinities to and differences from C.insulare, C. menthifolium, C. molle and C. nepeta are elaborated. These related species are revised for Turkey and adjacent areas and an identification key is provided.The geographic localities of the examined specimens are presented in a distribution map.
Prometheum chrysanthum (Boiss.) 't Hart subsp. uludaghense Kaynak, Yilmaz & Daşkin subsp. nova from northwest Anatolia, Turkey is described and illustrated. It is closest to P. chrysanthum subsp. chrysanthum, but differs by its narrower, oblong-lanceolate, longer cauline leaves, a thyrsoid inflorescence, and larger flowers.
Achillea hamzaoglui Arabaci & Budak sp. nova (Achillea sect. Santolinoidea), is described from Kirşehir Province, inner Anatolia, Turkey. It is compared with Achillea sintenisii and A. goniocephala. Diagnostic characters, as well as a full description, a key to related species and figures of new species are provided.
Silene cirpicii K. Yıldız & Dadandı sp. nova (Caryophyllaceae) is described and illustrated from N Anatolia, Turkey. Diagnostic morphological characters for distinction from the similar S. falcata, S. caryophylloides and S. argaea are given along with their chorological characteristics. Ultrastructure of the seeds and pollen grains was examined using SEM.
Two new species of Mahonia (Berberidaceae), M. dulongensis H. Li and M. lushuiensis T.S. Ying & H. Li, are described and illustrated from Yunnan, China. Mahonia dulongensis is morphologically similar to M. taronensis, but it differs in having 16–18 teeth on each leaflet margin side, adaxially with conspicuous lateral veins, and inflorescence of 11 fascicled racemes, 5–13 cm long, sometimes with branches. Mahonia lushuiensis is similar to M. polyodonta, but can be easily distinguished by its having 3–4 pairs of leaflets, adaxially with lateral veins flat or inconspicuous, and bracts of inflorescence ovate, 1 × 0.8 cm.
Centaurea kaynakiae Daşkın & Yılmaz sp. nova (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated from northwest Anatolia, Turkey. It is closest to C. odyssei, but differs by its distinctly petiolate and longer basal and median leaves, and spheroidal rather than prolate pollen grains.
Serjania littoralis Somner & Ferrucci sp. nova (Sapindaceae) is described from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It belongs to Serjania sect. Serjania. The new species is illustrated and compared with its putative closest relatives S. dentata and S. faveolata. It is known only from restinga vegetation. In addition, the micromorphological characters of the pollen grains are described.