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Habitat associations of small mammals are an essential component of ecosystem functioning. We studied habitat associations of small mammals during an 8-year period in a hemiboreal forest–farmland landscape. We observed all five rodent and one shrew species in meadows, three species in forests, and two species in crop fields. Total abundance was evenly distributed across the three main habitat types but was biased towards habitat margins. The bank vole, Myodes glareolus, was associated with mature and middle-aged forests and avoided meadows; it was absent from crop fields. The yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, occurred in all three main habitat types, without significant associations. However, its relative abundance was significantly higher in dry natural meadows and mid-successional forests, and it also favored ecotones. The striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius preferred crop fields and unmanaged meadows over forests. The vital hemiboreal small mammal community requires the preservation of heterogeneous forest–farmland complexes.
An accurate estimation of growth is crucial for any fish species that is a target in fishery. We applied a biphasic Lester model for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) population that is a slow-growing one. In this model, age at maturity divide the growth into immature and matuire phases. Logistic regression models showed that both age and length were significant in males and females when using maturity as a dependent variable, and both of these variables differed between sexes. To estimate how the changes in used age at maturity affect the Lester model parameters, the effects of ages from 10% to 90% probability of maturity were analysed. The gonadosomatic index of males (max. 2%) and females (max. 8.6%) was used to select Lester models that also gave low estimates for the investments in reproduction (g). Low g values were found in the Lester models for ages from 60% to 90% probability of maturity in males, and from 30% to 70% in females.
Invasive predators contributed to recent extinctions worldwide, including endemic birds. We monitored nests of two endemic birds in the Atlantic Forest, the serra antwren (Formicivora serrana littoralis) and the sooretama slaty antshrike (Thamnophilus ambiguus) during two consecutive breeding seasons, to estimate predation rates and identify the predators. As invasive marmosets apparently became locally common, we hypothesized that they would prey upon natural nests at a higher rate than native predators. We found 13 nests of the antwren and 15 of the antshrike, of which 100% and 73%, respectively, were preyed upon. Invasive marmosets preyed upon 13 of 16 nests (81%) with identified predators, affecting 90% and 67% of the antwren and the antshrike nests. This study documented that invasive primates negatively affect the breeding success of native birds in Brazil. We highlight the need for urgent measures to manage invasive marmosets to avoid the local extirpation of the endemic birds.
A new whitefly species, Dialeurodes sagoensis Dubey found on Zanthoxylum armatum in the Sago forests of the state of Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India, is described and illustrated. The pattern of wax secretion in puparia, and intraspecific variation in puparial morphology are discussed.
We explored the unusual position, anatomy and evolutionary significance of the position of the horns in Bos taurus. In the genus Bos, the frontal bone, frontal sinus and parietal bones are shifted and repositioned. A new occipital (pseudo-occipital) crest forms at the edge of the calvaria. The true occipital crest has shifted to the back along with the parietal. The frontal sinus has overridden a parietal sinus. We compared this bone reorganization with the anatomy of deer (Dama and Odocoileus), a gazelle (Gazella dorcas) and a bovid (Eotragus clavatus) in which the bones are in the primitive positions. The fetal Bos has a fontanelle which is not seen in Gazella or Odocoileus. An evolutionary succession can be developed based on the backward shift of the frontal and horns in Bos taurus and other Bovini.
A new species, Bryophaenocladius huadingensis, from the Huading Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China, is described and illustrated. The adult male of B. huadingensis can be distinguished from known species of Bryophaenocladius by inferior volsella hyaline located in the new species distally.
Xylotopus amamiapiatus (Sasa, 1990) is newly recorded from China. Illustrated redescription of adult male as well as the first DNA barcode of X. amamiapiatus are presented. Some morphological differences between the Chinese and Japanese specimens of the species are given.
Despite the widespread coexistence of three guilds of the bovid family — deer [red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)], gazelles [goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) and chinkara (Gazella bennettii)], and goats [bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), Armenian mouflon (Ovis gmelini) and urial (Ovis vignei)] — in southwestern Asia, detailed information on their habitat selection and niche partitioning is lacking. We used species distribution models (SDMs) based on MaxEnt to assess the suitability of habitats for these species. The results showed that MaxEnt models with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) > 0.85 had a good predictive value. The highest and lowest habitat overlaps were obtained for red deer/roe deer (35.4%) and goitered gazelle/chinkara (3.6%), respectively. Our results provide information on habitat selection and niche partitioning in the studied bovids which can improve their conservation efforts.
A revised diagnosis and taxonomic notes on the Holarctic fairyfly Polynema (Doriclytus) atratumHaliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), a common species in northern Europe, are given. Polynema ruficolleKieffer, 1913, syn. nov. (Scotland, United Kingdom), P. micropteraBakkendorf, 1934, syn. nov. (Denmark, for which a lectotype is designated), as well as P. fennicumSoyka, 1946, syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as P. fennica), P. novickyiSoyka, 1946, syn. nov. (Austria), P. aequicoloratum (Soyka, 1950), syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as Novickyella aequicolorata), P. auripedicellatum (Soyka, 1950), syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as Novickyella auripedicellata), P. calceatiscapus (Soyka, 1950), syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as Novickiella [sic] calceatiscapus), P. fennicosimile (Soyka, 1950), syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as Novickyella fennicosimilis), P. palustre (Soyka, 1950), syn. nov. (Austria, originally described as Novickyella palustrisSoyka, 1950, for which a lectotype is designated), P. arcticumSoyka, 1956, syn. nov. (Finland, originally described as P. arctica), P. brevicorneSoyka, 1956, syn. nov. (?Italy, originally described as P. brevicornis), P. globosiventreSoyka, 1956, syn. nov. (Poland, originally described as P. globosiventris), P. palustreSoyka, 1956, syn. nov. (Austria, originally described as P. palustris), and P. soykaiÖzdikmen, 2011, syn. nov. (unnecessary replacement name for P. palustre Soyka, 1956 nec P. palustre (Soyka, 1950)) are all synonymized under P. (Doriclytus) atratum. Primary types of the new synonyms, for which label data are provided, are illustrated with digital images. Females of P. (Doriclytus) atratum are usually fully winged but occasionally brachypterous, while males are always macropterous. Polynema (Doriclytus) atratum is for the first time recorded outside Europe, from the Asian part of the Palaearctic Region (Armenia) and the Nearctic Region (British Columbia, Canada). Numerous other records of this species, particularly from Finland and the adjacent countries, are given.
Diamesa loeffleriReiss, 1968 is newly recorded from China. Here, we present illustrated redescription of the adult male, as well as measurements and morphological differences between the Chinese and Nepalese specimens of D. loeffleri.
Hoffmanopeltis gen. nov. (type species Leptodesmus ravus Schubart, 1956) is described to accommodate H. ravus (Schubart, 1956) comb. nov. and H. contiger sp. nov, from Cerrado-Atlantic Forest ecotone, southeastern Brazil. The new genus is compared with other genera of Chelodesmidae, in particular AtlantodesmusHoffman, 2000 and PlectrogonodesmusHoffman, 2012, based on the morphology of the acropodital region and solenomere. In addition, an updated list of species of Chelodesmidae recorded in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is provided.