Several studies suggest the possibility that non-native lady beetles may have replaced native lady beetles in some agricultural habitats. There is relatively little information, however, about lady beetle species composition outside of agricultural habitats. Evans (2004) suggested that native species have retreated to nonagricultural habitats in response to the arrival of non-native lady beetles (habitat compression hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, a survey of lady beetles was conducted in 2004 and 2005 in different habitats in Maine. From May to October, lady beetles were sampled in a variety of agricultural and nonagricultural habitats. In total, 3,487 and 2,903 lady beetles were collected in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Non-native lady beetles were found in a variety of habitats, including the habitats that would have likely served as a refuge for native species if the habitat compression hypothesis applied to the surveyed areas. Native species were found in a higher proportion in agricultural habitats compared with nonagricultural habitats and in very low numbers in all of the habitats surveyed. Hippodamia tredecimpunctata tibialis (Say) and Coccinella transversoguttata Brown, the two native species that were once dominant here, made up only 1.09 and 0.07% of the total lady beetles collected, respectively. In this survey, we failed to detect evidence that native lady beetles have retreated to nonagricultural habitats in response to the arrival of non-native lady beetles.
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Vol. 101 • No. 6