The Odonata fauna of the Grand Canyon ecoregion (GCE) on the southern Colorado Plateau includes 89 species (35 genera, seven families), including 49 Anisoptera species (25 genera, four families) and 40 Zygoptera species (10 genera, three families), and with 58 Odonata species in Grand Canyon (GC; 24 genera, seven families). Three biogeographic hypotheses account for this relatively high regional species richness: faunal affinity (origin), elevation effects on range, and landform impacts across spatial scale. The GCE Odonata assemblage is the result of mixing of taxa from adjacent Neotropical and Nearctic regions. Allochthonous taxa include 34.8% tropical (Mexican, Caribbean, Neotropical, or Pantropical) and 21.3% boreal (Nearctic or Holarctic) species. Autochthonous species (43.8%) are range-centered in North American, neither clearly Nearctic nor Neotropical, with a strong Pacific Coast influence. Area-adjusted species richness is negatively linearly related to elevation. Tropical species have lower elevation ranges than do boreal species, whereas the elevation ranges of both allochthonous groups overlap those of autochthonous species. Odonata generally overcome landform-based range constraints at coarse spatial scales, but barrier/filter and corridor effects predominate over refuge and null biogeographic effects in GC. Anisoptera and Zygoptera biogeographic patterns are similar, except that 9-fold more Zygoptera species exist in refugia in GC compared with Anisoptera. Although no GCE Odonata previously have been considered rare or at risk, 15 (16.9%) species are restricted to three or fewer localities, four (4.5%) of species have been detected at only a single locality, and four high-elevation Nearctic species may be at risk of extirpation though climate change impacts on their habitats.
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Vol. 102 • No. 2