The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has been identified. The mtDNA (15,717 bp) of G. molesta encodes 13 putative proteins, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. Analysis of nucleotide composition of the genome indicates high A T composition (80.74%), which results in biased codon use and richness in specific amino acids of mitochondrial proteins. All protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons except for COI, which is initiated presumably by CGA codon. Except tRNASer (AGN), the remaining 21 tRNAs form a typical cloverleaf structure. An intergenic space between tRNASer (AGN) and ND1 contains a lepidopteran-characteristic sequence (ATACTAA). The control region, rich in A T, harbors several sequence characteristics shared by lepidopteran species, such as the motif ATAGA followed by 5′ poly T stretch and 3′ poly A stretch at just upstream of tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analysis, using whole mtDNAs, showed that G. molesta is clustered with other tortricid species, in which lepidopterans form a monophylogeny on the basis of Papilionoidea.
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