Despite their status as economically important pests on apple, species boundaries in the four native Nearctic species of Pandemis Hübner have remained uncertain for a century. We use a total evidence approach to test their genomic integrity using DNA (cytochrome oxidase I and ITS2), morphological (greyness of various wing areas), and geographic evidence. No single source of characters is sufficient, but combined evidence successfully separates the four species. We also examine the generic boundaries of Pandemis, using all Nearctic species, most western Palaearctic species, and a species of Archepandemis. DNA data place Archepandemis within Pandemis indicating that its members have lost the secondary sexual characters found in other Pandemis species.
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