The bamboo grasshopper, Ceracris kiangsu Tsai, is a serious pest of bamboo in China and Southeast Asia, and it overwinters as eggs for a period of up to 9 mo. Despite its importance, cold tolerance has not been thoroughly examined in this species. Thus, the present study investigated the low-temperature tolerance of overwintering eggs collected in the field, particularly the effects of rapid cold-hardening (RCH) and cold acclimation (ACC) on egg survival, and changes in the cryoprotectant contents. The supercooling point of overwintering eggs collected from the field was –23.9 °C, and their survival rate after exposure to –22 °C for 6 h was 26.6%, thereby suggesting that the cold tolerance strategy employed by C. kiangsu is freeze avoidance. After exposure to 0 and 4 °C for 12 and 24 h, or 0, 4, and 8 °C for 5 days, the survival rate of eggs subjected to –22 °C increased to approximately 50%, with significant effects of RCH and ACC. The glycerol levels in RCH and ACC treated eggs were also significantly higher than those in the control group, but the protein and trehalose contents were either reduced or not significantly altered. These results indicate that glycerol functions as a low molecular weight cryoprotectant in C. kiangsu eggs, and that RCH and ACC treatment facilitate its accumulation, thereby enhancing cold tolerance. Furthermore, the correlation between RCH and ACC was investigated.