Species of Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are important pests of conifers, particularly in seed orchards, and accurate species identification is needed for effective monitoring and control. Variable forewing morphology and lack of species-specific genitalic features hinder identification, prompting the search for additional diagnostic characters. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (COI and COII) were obtained from specimens collected at lights, pheromone traps, and host plants in the Pacific Northwest, focusing on a U.S. Forest Service seed orchard in Chico, CA. A 475-bp fragment of COI was used to identify eight distinct genetic lineages from 180 Dioryctria specimens, and these were identified as eight described species. Comparisons among mtDNA variation, adult morphology, larval host association, and pheromone attraction were used to assign individuals to species groups and to identify diagnostic characters for species identification. A 2.3-kb fragment of COI-COII was sequenced for 14 specimens to increase resolution of phylogenetic relationships. Species groups were well resolved using both the 475-bp and “DNA barcode” subsets of the 2.3-kb sequences, with the 475-bp fragment generally showing lower divergences. The zimmermani and ponderosae species groups were sister groups and had similar male genitalic morphology and larval feeding habits. The pentictonella group was sister to the zimmermani ponderosae group clade, and all species have raised scales and a Pinus sp. larval host (where known). Combining molecular characters with morphological and behavioral characters improved identification of Dioryctria species and supported previous species group relationships.
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Vol. 99 • No. 3