The genus Amblyocarenum Simon, 1892 is removed from synonymy with Cyrtauchenius Thorell, 1969. The separate identity of the genera Cyrtauchenius and Amblyocarenum is reconfirmed in comparative morphological studies of at least six newly collected species that, before the synonymizing of Cyrtauchenius and Amblyocarenum in 1985, would have been attributed to either of the two genera respectively. Comparison of this new collection with cyrtaucheniid species kept in the type collections of Mediterranean cyrtaucheniids in the MNHN, Paris, confirmed the separate identity of both Cyrtauchenius and Amblyocarenum. Further comparative studies of Cyrtauchenius, Amblyocarenum and three representative genera of non-Mediterranean cyrtaucheniids showed substantial morphological similarity between the genera Cyrtauchenius, Acontius, Ancylotrypa and Bolostromus and marked morphological differences between Amblyocarenum and all examined cyrtaucheniid genera. From these observations a close relationship between Cyrtauchenius and the non-Mediterranean Cyrtaucheniidae is inferred, while Amblyocarenum is tentatively thought to have its closest relatives in the African Nemesiidae.
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