The pathogenicity of serotype 1 group I avian adenovirus (GIAAV) strains isolated from gizzard erosions for 1-wk-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens was investigated. In Experiment 1, SPF chickens inoculated orally with a serotype 1 strain (Tokushima2000/GE) of GIAAV isolated from gizzard erosion in broilers were euthanatized and necropsied from 3 to 12 days after inoculation. Clinically, there were no significant signs in the chickens inoculated with Tokushima strain. The gizzards were found macroscopically to be dilated with liquefied contents. The koilin layer of the gizzard exhibited multifocal white lesions with occasional erosions. Gross lesions of the koilin layer (white foci and erosion) appeared at 3 days after inoculation and persisted until 12 days after inoculation. The gross lesions were most severe at 9 days after inoculation. Histologically, multifocal degeneration, necrosis, and loss of the glandular epithelial cells with intranuclear inclusions, liquefactive change of koilin substance, and erosive lesions of koilin layers and surface epithelium of the gizzards were observed. Macrophages increased in the focal areas of the lamina propria below the liquefactive koilin substances. Immunohistochemically, intranuclear inclusions were positive against GIAAV antigen. Histologic lesions of gizzards were most severe at 7 and 9 days after inoculation, but the frequency of intranuclear inclusions was greatest at 5 days after inoculation. In Experiment 2, the pathogenicities of four strains of serotype 1 GIAAV for 1-wk-old SPF chickens were compared. Three strains isolated from gizzard erosion had similar pathogenicities but one strain from a normal chicken was not pathogenic for chickens. These results suggest that gizzard erosions by serotype 1 GIAAV infection may occur in broiler chickens in Japan.
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Vol. 46 • No. 4