The mechanisms of perpetuation of influenza A viruses in aquatic birds, their main reservoir in nature, have not yet been completely clarified. One hypothesis is that they continue to circulate in waterfowl throughout the year, even though virus isolations during the winter months are rare. We analyzed influenza virus circulation in wild ducks in Italy during six winter seasons (1993–99), using virus isolations and serological analyses. It was apparent that influenza A viruses were constantly circulating in wild birds during all the seasons considered. Moreover, seroconversion rates (obtained from ducks recaptured during the same season) suggest a frequency of influenza infections higher than expected on the basis of the virus isolation rates.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.