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1 March 2007 The Proper Conduct of Research
John J. Maurer
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Scientific misconduct has garnered recent attention by the media over scandals concerning falsification and fabrication of data surrounding potentially promising breakthroughs in stem-cell research, allegations of plagiarism at a U.S. university, and financial conflicts of interest between researchers and drug companies. While this makes for interesting copy, discussion of scientific fraud provides an excellent opportunity to review ethical standards for research and examine the conflicts that confront researchers today. This review specifically focuses on five areas that involve scientific integrity—plagiarism, falsification, fabrication, authorship, and conflict of interest—as well as nuances in each area that even senior investigators may not be aware of (e.g., self-plagiarism). The standards for ethical conductance of research discussed in this review are those set by many scientific, peer-reviewed journals and by federal and private granting agencies, and therefore it highlights the expectations and guidelines surrounding manuscript and grant submissions and review, and the consequences associated with violations. This review is intended to stimulate discussion among readers and assess what is necessary to become a good, competitive, but ethical researcher, especially in an era of shrinking financial resources for research.

John J. Maurer "The Proper Conduct of Research," Avian Diseases 51(1), 1-7, (1 March 2007).[0001:TPCOR]2.0.CO;2
Received: 13 November 2006; Accepted: 1 December 2006; Published: 1 March 2007
conflict of interest
scientific misconduct
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