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1 December 2008 Infectious Bronchitis Virus in the Chicken Harderian Gland and Lachrymal Fluid: Viral Load, Infectivity, Immune Cell Responses, and Effects of Viral Immunodeficiency
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Abstract

We compared detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in tears and trachea of IBV-infected chickens and found that quantitative detection of IBV RNA in tears is more sensitive than in tracheal homogenates. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IBV contained in chicken lachrymal fluid is infectious and that tears of IBV-infected chickens can be used to infect naive chickens. We compared the immune responses to IBV in the Harderian gland and cecal tonsils of immunocompetent chickens and chickens infected with chicken anemia virus (CAV) and/or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Flow cytometry analyses of lymphocytes in Harderian glands and cecal tonsils indicated that the relative abundance of IgM B cells in the Harderian glands and cecal tonsils following exposure to IBV in combination with immunosuppressive viruses was reduced compared to chickens infected with IBV alone. CAV, but not IBDV, reduced the CD4 /CD8 T cell ratios compared to chickens infected with IBV alone. Enzyme-linked immuno-spot forming assays on cells in the Harderian glands and cecal tonsils of IBV-infected chickens indicated that maximum IBV-specific IgA-secreting cell responses were reduced in chickens infected with CAV. IBDV co-infected chickens displayed a delayed IgA response to IBV. Thus immunosuppressive viruses reduced B cells and T helper cells in the Harderian glands and cecal tonsils in response to IBV, and slowed the kinetics and/or reduced the magnitude of the mucosal immune response against IBV. We have shown for the first time that CAV affects pathogen-specific B cell responses in a mucosal effector site.

Abbreviations: APHIS = Animal Plant & Health Inspection Service; CAV = chicken anemia virus; CT = cecal tonsil; CTL = cytotoxic T-lymphocyte; DPI = days post-IBV inoculation; EID50 = 50% embryo infective dose; ELISPOT = enzyme-linked immuno-spot forming; FACS = fluorescence-activated cell sorter; HG = Harderian gland; IBDV = infectious bursal disease virus; IBV = infectious bronchitis virus; Ig = immunoglobulin; PBS = phosphate buffer solution; PCR = polymerase chain reaction; qRT-PCR = quantitative RT-PCR; RT-PCR = reverse transcriptase PCR; SFC = spot-forming cells; SPF = specific-pathogen-free

Virus de bronquitis infecciosa en el fluido lacrimal y en la glándula de Harder del pollo: Carga viral, infectividad, respuestas inmune celular y efectos del virus.

Por medio de la prueba cuantitativa de la reacción en cadena por la polimerasa-transcripción reversa en tiempo real, se comparó la detección del virus de bronquitis infecciosa en las lágrimas y la tráquea de pollos infectados con el virus de bronquitis infecciosa y se encontró que la detección cuantitativa del ácido ribonucléico del virus en las lágrimas es más sensible que en los homogenados de la tráquea. Así mismo, se demostró que el virus de bronquitis presente en el fluido lagrimal es infeccioso y que las lágrimas de pollos infectados con el virus de bronquitis pueden usarse para infectar pollos susceptibles. Se comparó la respuesta inmune al virus de bronquitis infecciosa en la glándula de Harder y en las tonsilas cecales de pollos inmunocompetentes y en pollos infectados con el virus de anemia infecciosa aviar y con el de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bolsa (Gumboro), o con ambos. El análisis por medio de la citometría de flujo de los linfocitos en la glándula de Harder y en las tonsilas cecales indicó una reducción de la abundancia relativa de las células B IgM en estos dos órganos después de la exposición al virus de bronquitis en combinación con los virus inmunosupresores, comparado con los pollos infectados sólo con el virus de bronquitis. El virus de la anemia infecciosa, pero no el de Gumboro, redujo la proporción de las células T CD4 /CD8 , comparado con los pollos infectados

F. W. van Ginkel, V. L. van Santen, S. L. Gulley, and H. Toro "Infectious Bronchitis Virus in the Chicken Harderian Gland and Lachrymal Fluid: Viral Load, Infectivity, Immune Cell Responses, and Effects of Viral Immunodeficiency," Avian Diseases 52(4), 608-617, (1 December 2008). https://doi.org/10.1637/8349-050908-Reg.1
Received: 11 May 2008; Accepted: 1 July 2008; Published: 1 December 2008
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