How to translate text using browser tools
1 December 2012 Avian Influenza in North America, 2009–2011
John Pasick, Janice Pedersen, Mario Solis Hernandez
Author Affiliations +

All reports of avian influenza virus infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in Canada, the United States, and Mexico between 2009 and 2011 involved low pathogenic avian influenza. All three countries reported outbreaks of low pathogenic notifiable avian influenza in poultry during this period. The reports involved outbreaks of H5N2 among commercial turkeys in Canada in 2009 and 2010; outbreaks of H5N3 in turkeys in 2009, H5N2 in chickens in 2010, H7N3 in turkeys in 2011, and H7N9 in chickens, turkeys, geese, and guinea fowl in 2011 in the United States; and multiple outbreaks of H5N2 in chickens in Mexico in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 infections in turkey breeder flocks were reported in Canada in 2009 and in the United States in 2010. Active surveillance of live bird markets in the United States led to the detection of H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, and H10 subtypes. Despite the fact that wild bird surveillance programs underwent contraction during this period in both Canada and the United States, H5 and H7 subtypes were still detected.

American Association of Avian Pathologists
John Pasick, Janice Pedersen, and Mario Solis Hernandez "Avian Influenza in North America, 2009–2011," Avian Diseases 56(4s1), 845-848, (1 December 2012).
Received: 19 April 2012; Accepted: 1 June 2012; Published: 1 December 2012
Get copyright permission
Back to Top