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6 June 2019 Typhlohepatitis and Amyloidosis Associated with High Mortality in Chukar Partridges (Alectoris chukar)
Rüdiger Hauck, Simone Stoute, Thaiza Savaris, H. L. Shivaprasad
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Twelve chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) from a farm experiencing poor uniformity and increased mortality of up to 65% were submitted for diagnosis. Several birds had mild to moderate multifocal white foci or multifocal petechial hemorrhages throughout the liver. Livers and spleens of older birds were moderate to severely diffusely enlarged. In addition, some birds had caseous cores mixed with blood within the ceca as well as segmentally thickened cecal walls. Histopathology showed acute, multifocal, severe, often coalescing foci of necrosis with accumulation of fibrin and/or fibrinosuppurative inflammation in livers and spleens. Scattered within exudate were protozoa that were spherical or round and measured 12–20 µm in diameter. In the ceca, acute necrosis of the mucosa was observed, often with ulceration and fibrinosuppurative inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using an antiserum against Tritrichomonas foetus revealed round protozoa in ceca, small intestines, liver, spleen, and lung. Quantitative PCR to detect DNA of Histomonas meleagridis was negative. Non–species-specific PCRs amplifying the partial rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and the partial beta-tubulin gene yielded products of the expected size. Sequences of the PCR products had the highest homology to sequences of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and less homology to sequences of H. meleagridis. In addition there was accumulation of amyloid in the space of Disse in the liver, splenic sinuses, and walls of the blood vessels. The typhlohepatitis and other inflammatory processes that were diagnosed might be the underlying cause of the amyloidosis. Other findings were clusters of Clostridium perfringens associated with the lesions in the ceca; multifocal granulomas in the lungs, occasionally associated with fungal hyphae; hyperkeratosis associated with bacteria and Candida sp. cells in the crop; mild infection of the bursal mucosa with Cryptosporidium.

Rüdiger Hauck, Simone Stoute, Thaiza Savaris, and H. L. Shivaprasad "Typhlohepatitis and Amyloidosis Associated with High Mortality in Chukar Partridges (Alectoris chukar)," Avian Diseases 63(3), 446-451, (6 June 2019).
Received: 22 January 2019; Accepted: 22 April 2019; Published: 6 June 2019
molecular characterization
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