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13 September 2021 A Cell Line Adapted Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Strain (BΔORFC) for in ovo and Hatchery Spray Vaccination Alone or in Combination with a Recombinant HVT-LT Vaccine
Daniel Maekawa, Sylva M. Riblet, Patrick Whang, Ivan Alvarado, Maricarmen García
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Abstract

To produce more-stable, live attenuated vaccines for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), deletion of genes related to virulence has been extensively pursued. Although its function remains unknown, the open reading frame C (ORF C) is among the genes potentially associated with viral virulence that is nonessential for replication in vitro. Earlier results indicated that the ILT virus with deletion of the ORF C gene (BΔORFC) was suitable and safe for eye drop administration but was not sufficiently attenuated for in ovo administration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and protection efficacy of a cell line–adapted, gene-deleted strain (BΔORFC) of ILTV when administered in ovo and/or spray (SP) by itself, or in combination with the recombinant HVT-LT (rHVT-LT) vaccine. Results indicated that vaccination with the BΔORFC strain, either by itself or in combination with an rHVT-LT vaccine, did not affect hatchability, and only marginal signs of respiratory distress were recorded for groups of chickens that received the BΔORFC strain via SP. The replication and seroconversion induced by the BΔORFC strain after in ovo and SP administration was very limited, whereas the replication of the rHVT-LT vaccine was delayed when combined with the BΔORFC strain in ovo. Compared to rHVT-LT or BΔORFC when administered alone, dual vaccination with rHVT-LT + BΔORFC was more effective in mitigating clinical signs of the disease and reducing challenge virus load in the trachea. To our knowledge, this study provides the first proof of concept that ILTV strains can be sufficiently attenuated for early vaccination in ovo or at hatch; also, this study documented the benefits of using a dual (recombinant and live attenuated) hatchery vaccination strategy for ILTV.

Daniel Maekawa, Sylva M. Riblet, Patrick Whang, Ivan Alvarado, and Maricarmen García "A Cell Line Adapted Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Strain (BΔORFC) for in ovo and Hatchery Spray Vaccination Alone or in Combination with a Recombinant HVT-LT Vaccine," Avian Diseases 65(3), 500-507, (13 September 2021). https://doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-20-00050
Received: 17 May 2021; Accepted: 23 July 2021; Published: 13 September 2021
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