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1 November 2001 Feasibility of Producing Porcine Nuclear Transfer Embryos by Using G2/M-Stage Fetal Fibroblasts as Donors
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The type of donor cell most suitable for producing cloned animals is one of the topics under debate in the field of nuclear transfer. To provide useful information to answer this question, G2/M- and G0/G1-stage fetal fibroblasts were used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. In vitro-matured oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries were used as recipient cytoplasts. In both groups, nuclear envelope breakdown and premature chromosome condensation were completed within 1–2 h after donor cells were injected into the cytoplasm of oocytes. Microtubules were organized around condensed chromosomes and formed a spindle within 1–1.5 h after activation. Decondensation of chromosomes could be seen within 2–4 h after activation. Reformation of the new nuclear envelope occurred 4–6 h after activation and was followed by nuclear swelling and formation of a pronucleus-like structure (PN) 8–12 h after activation. Most (80.6%) of the reconstructed oocytes derived from G2/M cells extruded polar body-like structures (PB). However, a much lower frequency of PB (21.7%) was observed in the reconstructed oocytes derived from G0/G1 donors. A variety of PN and PB combinations were observed in reconstructed oocytes derived from G2/M-stage donors, including 1PN 0PB, 1PN 1PB, 1PN 2PB, 2PN 0PB, 2PN 1PB, 2PN 2PB, and 3PN 1PB. Chromosomes of most embryos (10/13) derived from G2/M stage were diploid. The percentage of cleavage and blastocysts and the average nuclear number of blastocysts in the G2/M and G0/G1 groups were not different. These results demonstrate that the G2/M stage can be morphologically remodeled by cytoplasm of MII oocytes in pigs. To maintain normal ploidy, the extra chromosomes derived from G2/M-stage cells could be expelled by oocytes as a second polar body. G2/M-stage fibroblast nuclei could direct reconstructed embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage.

Liangxue Lai, Tao Tao, Zoltan Macháty, Birgit Kühholzer, Qing-Yuan Sun, Kwang-Wook Park, Bill N. Day, and Randall S. Prather "Feasibility of Producing Porcine Nuclear Transfer Embryos by Using G2/M-Stage Fetal Fibroblasts as Donors," Biology of Reproduction 65(5), 1558-1564, (1 November 2001).
Published: 1 November 2001

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