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1 October 2004 The Embryo and Its Future
Tom P. Fleming, Wing Yee Kwong, Richard Porter, Elizabeth Ursell, Irina Fesenko, Adrian Wilkins, Daniel J. Miller, Adam J. Watkins, Judith J. Eckert
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Abstract

The preimplantation mammalian embryo from different species appears sensitive to the environment in which it develops, either in vitro or in vivo, for example, in response to culture conditions or maternal diet. This sensitivity may lead to long-term alterations in the characteristics of fetal and/or postnatal growth and phenotype, which have implications for clinical health and biotechnological applications. We review the breadth of environmental influences that may affect early embryos and their responses to such conditions along epigenetic, metabolic, cellular, and physiological directions. In addition, we evaluate how embryo environmental responses may influence developmental potential and phenotype during later gestation. We conclude that a complex of different mechanisms may operate to associate early embryo environment with future health.

Tom P. Fleming, Wing Yee Kwong, Richard Porter, Elizabeth Ursell, Irina Fesenko, Adrian Wilkins, Daniel J. Miller, Adam J. Watkins, and Judith J. Eckert "The Embryo and Its Future," Biology of Reproduction 71(4), 1046-1054, (1 October 2004). https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.030957
Received: 19 April 2004; Accepted: 1 June 2004; Published: 1 October 2004
JOURNAL ARTICLE
9 PAGES


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KEYWORDS
conceptus
early development
embryo
epigenetics
female reproductive tract
fetal and postnatal development
gene expression regulation
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