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1 November 2005 Minireview. Estrogen Receptor beta in Health and Disease
Otabek Imamov, Gil-Jin Shim, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
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Estrogens, acting through its two receptors, ESR1 (hereafter designated ER alpha) and ESR2 (hereafter designated ER beta), have diverse physiological effects in the reproductive system, bone, cardiovascular system, hematopoiesis, and central and peripheral nervous systems. Mice with inactivated ER alpha, ER beta, or both show a number of interesting phenotypes, including incompletely differentiated epithelium in tissues under steroidal control (prostate, ovary, mammary, and salivary glands) and defective ovulation reminiscent of polycystic ovarian syndrome in humans (in ER beta−/− mice), and obesity, insulin resistance, and complete infertility (both in male and female ER alpha−/− mice). Estrogen agonists and antagonists are frequently prescribed drugs with indications that include postmenopausal syndrome (agonists) and breast cancer (antagonists). Because the two estrogen receptors (ERs) have different physiological functions and have ligand binding pockets that differ enough to be selective in their ligand binding, opportunities now exist for development of novel ER subtype-specific selective-ER modulators.

Otabek Imamov, Gil-Jin Shim, Margaret Warner, and Jan-Åke Gustafsson "Minireview. Estrogen Receptor beta in Health and Disease," Biology of Reproduction 73(5), 866-871, (1 November 2005).
Received: 3 May 2005; Accepted: 1 July 2005; Published: 1 November 2005
estradiol receptor
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