Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2; also known as TG2 or tTG) localizes to the syncytial microvillous membrane (MVM) of the human placenta, the primary interface between maternal and fetal tissue. To identify TGM2 substrates in the MVM, membrane vesicles were prepared and labeled with biotinylated acyl donor or acceptor probes. Biotinylated species were selected on an avidin affinity matrix and identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The most abundant were cytoskeletal (actin, tubulin, and cytokeratin) and membrane-associated (annexins, integrins, and placental alkaline phosphatase) proteins. During pregnancy, apoptotic particulate material, the end product of the trophoblast life cycle, is shed from the MVM into maternal circulation. Shed material was isolated from primary trophoblast cultures in which syncytial-like masses develop by fusion. A substantial fraction of actin in the particles was in the form of covalent polymeric aggregates, in contrast to cellular actin, which dissociated completely into monomer in SDS-PAGE. When cells were cultured in the presence of transglutaminase inhibitors, actin in the shed particles remained exclusively in monomeric form, and a reduction in trophoblast intercellular fusion and differentiation was observed. These findings suggest that transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking stabilizes the particulate material shed from the placenta.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 77 • No. 4