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1 June 2009 Peroxiredoxin 2 and Peroxidase Enzymatic Activity of Mammalian Spermatozoa
Gaurishankar Manandhar, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose R. Pedrajas, William J. Krause, Shawn Zimmerman, Miriam Sutovsky, Peter Sutovsky
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Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) is a highly efficient redox protein that neutralizes hydrogen peroxide, resulting in protection of cells from oxidative damage and in regulation of peroxide-mediated signal transduction events. The oxidized form of PRDX2 is reverted back to the reduced form by the thioredoxin system. In the present study, we investigated the presence of PRDX2 in mouse and boar spermatozoa and in mouse spermatids using proteomic techniques and immunocytochemistry. Sperm and spermatid extracts displayed a 20-kDa PRDX2 band on Western blotting. PRDX2 occurred as a Triton-soluble form in spermatids and as a Triton-insoluble form in mature spermatozoa. Boar seminiferous tubule extracts were immunoprecipitated with PRDX2 antibody and separated by SDS-PAGE. Peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (TOF) and microsequencing by nanospray quadrupole-quadrupole TOF tandem mass spectrometry revealed the presence of PRDX2 ions in the immunoprecipitated band, along with sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein, cellular nucleic acid-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase 4. In mouse spermatocytes and spermatids, diffuse labeling of PRDX2 was observed in the cytoplasm and residual bodies. After spermiation, PRDX2 localization became confined to the mitochondrial sheath of the sperm tail midpiece. Boar spermatozoa displayed similar PRDX2 localization as in mouse spermatozoa. Boar spermatozoa with disrupted acrosomes expressed PRDX2 in the postacrosomal sheath region. Peroxidase enzyme activity of boar sperm extracts was evaluated by estimating the rate of NADPH oxidation in the presence or absence of a glutathione depletor (diethyl maleate) or a glutathione reductase inhibitor (carmustine). Diethyl maleate partially inhibited peroxidase activity, whereas carmustine showed an insignificant effect. These observations suggest that glutathione and glutathione reductase activity contribute only partially to the total peroxidase activity of the sperm extract. While the specific role of PRDX2 in the total peroxidase activity of sperm extract is still an open question, the present study for the first time (to our knowledge) shows the presence of PRDX2 in mammalian spermatozoa. Peroxidase activity in sperm extracts is not due to the glutathione system and therefore possibly involves PRDX2 and other peroxiredoxins.

Gaurishankar Manandhar, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose R. Pedrajas, William J. Krause, Shawn Zimmerman, Miriam Sutovsky, and Peter Sutovsky "Peroxiredoxin 2 and Peroxidase Enzymatic Activity of Mammalian Spermatozoa," Biology of Reproduction 80(6), 1168-1177, (1 June 2009).
Received: 7 July 2008; Accepted: 1 January 2009; Published: 1 June 2009
diethyl maleate
peroxidase activity
peroxiredoxin 2
reactive oxygen
sperm proteome
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