Our group found that the treatment of embryos with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), including trichostatin A, Scriptaid, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and oxamflatin, after cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) resulted in significantly improved efficiency. Although many researchers have investigated the use of HDACi treatment to improve the quality of cloned mouse embryos, the mechanism underlying this treatment has not been completely understood. We believe that the effect of HDACi on embryonic gene activation (EGA) is important for normal development of cloned embryos. In the present study, using highly sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes complementary to mouse rDNA, the effect of Scriptaid on the onset of rRNA synthesis was examined in cloned embryos. In addition, to determine how Scriptaid affects pre-rRNA processing machinery in SCNT embryos with activated rDNA transcription, functional nucleolar formation was analyzed in detail by combined assessment of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar protein allocation in preimplantation embryos. In this experiment, at least part of the rRNA localization by FISH was substituted by 5-bromouridine 5′-triphosphate staining after alpha-amanitin treatment. The results show that in the late 2-cell stage, a number of SCNT embryos initiated transcriptional activation while having one blastomere showing inactivated rRNA transcription and another blastomere showing activated rRNA transcription and despite both nuclei being in interphase. In addition, in some SCNT embryos, the same nuclei contained a mixture of inactively and actively transcribed rRNA, which was rarely observed in intracytoplasmic sperm injection embryos. This asynchronous transcription induced a delay of one cell cycle in SCNT embryo activation of functional nucleoli. Scriptaid can overcome this failure in the timely onset of embryonic gene transcription by activation of rRNA genes and promotion of nucleolar protein allocation during the early phase of EGA.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 85 • No. 5