Preconception or gestationally induced diabetes increases morbidities and elevates long-term cardiovascular disease risks in women and their children. Spontaneously hyperglycemic (d)-NOD/ShiLtJ female mice, a type 1 diabetes model, develop bradycardia and hypotension after midpregnancy compared with normoglycemic, age- and gestational day (GD)-matched control (c-NOD) females. We hypothesized that onset of the placental circulation at GD 9–10 and rapid fetal growth from GD 14 correlate with aberrant hemodynamic outcomes in d-NOD females. To develop further gestational time-course correlations between maternal cardiac and renal parameters, high-frequency ultrasonography was applied to d- and c-NOD mice (virgin and at GD 8–16). Cardiac output and left ventricular (LV) mass increased in c-NOD but not in d-NOD mice. Ultrasound and postmortem histopathology showed overall greater LV dilation in d-NOD than in c-NOD mice at mid to late gestation. These changes suggest blunted remodeling and altered functional adaptation of d-NOD hearts. Umbilical cord ultrasounds revealed lower fetal heart rates from GD 12 and lower umbilical flow velocities at GD 14 and GD 16 in d-NOD versus c-NOD pregnancies. From GD 14 to GD 16, d-NOD fetal losses exceeded c-NOD fetal losses. Similar aberrant responses in pregnancies of women with diabetes may elevate postpartum maternal and child cardiovascular risk, particularly if mothers lack adequate prenatal care or have poor glycemic control during gestation.
Biology of Reproduction
Vol. 88 • No. 6
Vol. 88 • No. 6
developmental origins of health and disease