Comparative phylogeography (CP) can be defined as the study of the effects of evolutionary history and biogeography on the distribution of genetic variation of codistributed species. CP studies have intensified in recent years, which is a natural progression from an extensive history of intraspecific phylogeography research. On the basis of a thorough review of published studies that specifically deal with CP, our objective in the present review is to provide a comprehensive guide to the discipline that will help those wishing to develop a CP project. We describe the characteristics that shape a CP study and summarize the field's prime theoretical, methodological, and analytical requirements; frequent hypotheses tested; and current achievements and limitations, including a variety of illustrative examples throughout. We finally highlight some new approaches in CP and briefly discuss future directions for the field.
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Vol. 61 • No. 11