The areas targeted for restoration are often the modified ecosystems that are rapidly becoming the planetary norm, and when ecosystem modification has been extensive, local genotypes may not be the most effective for repair. Here, local has value is presented as a paradigm for the restoration of such systems as a corollary to local is best for systems that have sustained less modification. In many cases, adaptation may be enhanced through genetic variation or applying artificial selection, particularly for generalist species. Ecologically appropriate plant materials are those that exhibit ecological fitness for their intended site, display compatibility with other members of the plant community, and demonstrate no invasive tendencies. They may address specific environmental challenges, rejuvenate ecosystem function, and improve the delivery of ecosystem services. Furthermore, they may be improved over time, thereby serving to ameliorate the increasingly challenging environments that typify many restoration sites.
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Vol. 63 • No. 3