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1 July 2003 Revision of the genus Clibadium (Asteraceae, Heliantheae)
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Revision of the genus Clibadium (Asteraceae, Heliantheae). Brittonia 55: 245–301. 2003.—Clibadium L. (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) is a genus of 29 species distributed throughout Latin America, from Mexico to Peru, and in the West Indies, with high numbers of species in Costa Rica, Colombia, and Ecuador. Clibadium includes shrubs and small trees; usually with loosely aggregated capitula; herbaceous phyllaries arranged in 1–5 series; receptacles usually paleaceous throughout; corollas of pistillate florets 2–4-lobed; corollas of the staminate florets 4–5-lobed; purple to black anthers; and chromosome numbers all n = 16. Two sections of species previously recognized are here considered as subgenera (subg. Paleata and subg. Clibadium) containing two and four sections, respectively. Clibadium subg. Paleata contains five species distributed in sects. Eggersia (3 spp.) and Trixidium (2 spp.), and subg. Clibadium has 24 species distributed among sects. Clibadium (6 spp.), Glomerata (9 spp.), Grandifolia (5 spp.), and Oswalda (4 spp.).

Clibadium incluye arbustos y árboles pequeños; generalmente con capítulos laxamente agregados; filarias herbáceas, ordenadas en 1–5 series; receptáculos generalmente paláceos; corolas de las florets pistiladas con 2–4 lóbulos; corolas de las florets estaminadas con 4–5 lóbulos; anteras púrpuras a negras; y números cromosómicos todos n = 16. Dos grupos de especies previamente reconocidas son aquí considerados como subgéneros (subg. Paleata y subg. Clibadium) que tienen dos y cuatro secciones, respectivamente. Clibadium subg. Paleata contiene cinco especies distribuídas en sects. Eggersia (3 spp.) y Trixidium (2 spp.), y subg. Clibadium incluye 24 especies distribuídas entre las sects. Clibadium (6 spp.) Glomerata (9 spp.), Grandifolia (5 spp.), y Oswalda (4 spp.).

Jorge E. Arriagada "Revision of the genus Clibadium (Asteraceae, Heliantheae)," Brittonia 55(3), 245-301, (1 July 2003).[0245:ROTGCA]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 July 2003

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